Over the last week, there have been signs that international actors are stepping up military engagement. These incidents are potentially in violation of the permanent ceasefire agreement signed between Libya’s two competing coalitions on 23 October.

On 4 December, GNA Defence Minister Saleh al-Deen al-Namroush met in Rome with his Italian counterpart, Lorenzo Guerini, to sign a military cooperation agreement meant to strengthen Libyan capacities in training and health care activities. The agreement also established several areas of military cooperation, including over illegal migration and mine clearance.

On 6 December, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights stated that Turkey was preparing to send a new batch of Syrian fighters to Libya in the coming days. The Observatory said the return of Turkish-backed Syrian mercenaries had been suspended since the latest batch arrived in Syria in mid-November.

On 6 December, a document dated 6 November began circulating on social media revealing that 1,200 soldiers from the Sudanese paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) were given permission to deploy to the Jufra airbase in central Libya. The document has not been authenticated by a reliable source.