Further Reading

Recommended literature about Libya, jihadism and related issues


El-Khawas, Mohamed A. 1986. Qaddafi: his ideology in theory and practice. Brattleboro, Vt: Amana Books.

Vandewalle, Dirk. 2012. A history of modern Libya. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Vandewalle, Dirk J. 2009. Libya since 1969: Qadhafi’s revolution revisited. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Otman, Waniss A., and Erling Karlberg. 2007. The Libyan Economy Economic Diversification and International Repositioning. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Kousa, Musa M. 1978. The political leader and his social background: Muammar Qadafi, the Libyan leader.

Ayoub, Mahmoud. 2017. Islam and the third universal theory: the religious thought of Mu’ammar al-Qadhdhafi.

Pack, Jason. 2013. The 2011 Libyan uprisings and the struggle for the post-Qadhafi future. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Recent Reports

ISIS’s progressive resurgence in Libya

September 2018

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) issued for News Hour a video report on Libya. In the report, journalist Christopher Livesay investigates the resurgence of the Islamic State (ISIS) in Libya. He interviews members of Libya’s counter-terrorism forces in Sirte, as well as analyst Frederic Wehrey and UN Special Envoy to Libya Ghassan Salame. The conclusions of the report are that ISIS continues to exist in Libya despite the 2016 intervention by Libyan and allied forces. The terrorist group has regrouped in desert areas and has perpetrated several violent attacks this year. However, according to experts, it still lacks the ability to control majorities.

Islamic State’s Deadly Return in Libya Imperils Oil Output

September 2018

In an article published with The Wall Street Journal Jared Malsin and Benoit Faucon discuss how the widening security vacuum in Libya gives the Islamic State (IS) room to maneuver. The two authors argue that the political turmoil and the confrontations between militias create the perfect conditions for a strong return of the Islamic State, as illustrated by the attack on the Tripoli headquarters of the National Oil Company on 10 September. According to Malsin and Faucon, the resurgence of IS in Libya also poses a significant threat to oil production.

Islamic State in Libya: Fighters are regrouping in the lawless desert

August 2018

Tom Wescott published for the Middle East Eye a report on the presence of IS fighters in Libya. According to the article, IS presence remains strong in Libya, most particularly in desert areas, in the South where it has regrouped after its defeat in Sirte. Wescott suggests in his article that immigrant fighters are joining IS, enabling the group to steadily expand its presence in Libya. Interviewed by Wescott, Major General Mohammed al-Ghossri declared that the current divisions within Libya provide the perfect environment for a return of IS in Libya.

Tripoli: From Militias to Powerful Organized Criminal Networks

July 2018

The Security Assesment of North Africa (SANA) Project associated with the Small Arms Survey Association issued a report untitled ‘Capital of Militias: Tripoli’s Armed Groups Capture the Libyan State’ focusing on the role played by militias in Tripoli since the beginning of the Libyan crisis in 2011. The two authors, Wolfram Lacher and Alaa al-Idrissi, demonstrate that over the past seven years, four large militias, namely the Special Deterrence Force (SDF), the Tripoli Revolutionnaries Battalion (TRB), the Nawasi Battalion and the Abu Slim unit of the Central Security Aparatus, have gradually divided Tripoli between themselves. Lacher and al-Idrissi argue that these four militias have transformed into organised criminal networks and exert an unprecedented degree of influence over state institutions and resources.  The report depicts how the progressive capture of Tripoli by such powerful armed groups pose a significant threat to the political progress in Libya. Lacher and al-Idrissi provide readers with a high-quality research, depicting with clarity and precision the evolution of militias in Tripoli and the tensions resulting from their growing influence.

Libya as the “fourth-largest foreign fighter mobilization in global jihadist history”

January 2018

In a very thorough and well researched Policy Note for The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Aaron Zelin breaks down the components of the Libyan jihad, including country-by-country statistics on fighters. Zelin traces the routes taken by jihad aspirants from various African points of origin to Libya and shows how Libya has seen the fourth-largest foreign fighter mobilization in global jihadist history, behind only the current war in Syria, the Afghan jihad of the 1980s, and the 2003 Iraq war.  Zelin describes the need for a deeper understanding of the foreign-fighter phenomenon in Libya and argues:

Libya deserves attention not just for the jihad that has played out there over the past several years, but also because it offers a potential future jihadist hub given the collapse in 2017 of IS centers in Iraq and Syria. Although no signs suggest IS plans to move its operational center from the Levant to Libya, despite worries to this effect by Western officials, aspiring jihadists in Europe might see an attractive opportunity in the North African state, given its proximity to the European continent.

A Quick Guide to Libya’s Main Players

January 2018

Mary Fitzgerald and Mattia Toaldo have recently updated their guide to Libya’s main players for the European Council on Foreign Relations. Outlining the key political groups, armed groups, and jihadists the guide also features detail maps of armed groups, centers of power and key infrastructure. In the guide the authors explore the state of some of the Zintani armed groups:

A number of Zintani forces have distanced themselves from Haftar – particularly those close to former defence minister Osama Jweili – while others remain supportive. As commander of the GNA’s western region military zone, Jweili led an offensive in the Wershefana territory on Tripoli’s hinterland in November 2017 with a coalition that included forces from Zintan, Tripoli – among them Haithem Tajouri’s TRB – and Tarhouna. While ostensibly “anti-crime”, the operation also served to undermine LNA-affiliated groups in the area.

Al-Qaida’s Strategy in Libya: Keep it Local, Stupid

December 2017

Rhiannon Smith, the Managing Director of Libya-Analysis and Eye on ISIS in Libya (EOIL), and Jason Pack, the founder of Libya-Analysis and EOIL, have written an article for Perspectives on Terrorism that looks at how al-Qaida-linked groups focus on the local struggle in Libya, how they have shaped their strategies and activities in the country, and what impact this has had on the communities where they are active.

Smith and Pack argue that in Libya, al-Qaida-linked groups have done a better job than their ISIS-linked counterparts at staying rooted to local concerns, local actors, and evolving country dynamics, and that this has allowed them to mimic and replicate local and traditional power structures. The authors state:

Globally, al-Qaida has survived so long despite its defeats and setbacks because it has learnt from past failures and adapted. Where ISIS has invited direct confrontation and military annihilation through its high-profile brutality, al-Qaida has adopted a cautious bottom-up approach to building support. This keeps it below the radar, but makes it no less dangerous.  ASL [Ansar al-Sharia Libya, an al-Qaida linked group] has already applied this technique in Benghazi, and it is likely that its official disbandment is a continuation of this strategy. By publicly claiming it has disbanded, ASL may be able to protect itself against complete annihilation at the hands of Haftar’s forces, distance itself from the last three years of fighting in Benghazi, and allow its members to reintegrate into the city at a social level rather than a military one. As such, they may live to fight another day and rejoin other al-Qaida linked groups. The threat that ASL directly poses may be significantly reduced in the short term, but while chaos and insecurity still reign throughout Libya, it may not take the group, or others similar to it, long to rebuild a support base. In Derna, the DMSC [Derna Mujahadeen Shura Council] has cemented its legitimacy, not by watering down its ideological beliefs, but by framing its objectives so that they specifically appeal to the historic and socio-political context of Derna itself. By defeating ISIS and fighting against Haftar, the DMSC and its constituent parts have appealed to ingrained fears of central authority, thereby portraying themselves as patriotic Libyans first, Salafi-jihadis second. Indeed, al-Qaida-linked groups have done a better job mimicking such local and traditional structures than their ISIS-linked equivalents.

Islamic State’s Re-organization in Libya and Potential Connections With Illegal Trafficking

November 2017

Arturo Varvelli has written a report for The George Washington University Program on Extremism titled “Islamic State’s Re-organization in Libya and Potential Connections With Illegal Trafficking.” The report outlines how ISIS penetrated Libya and explores the possibility of illegal trafficking in Libya converging with jihadist groups. Varvelli argues:

The risk exists that terrorist organizations might leverage Libya’s destabilization to finance themselves through smuggling, specifically through human trafficking. However, this risk currently seems unlikely for two reasons. First, jihadist groups in Libya seem to be in a phase of weakness and dispersion. The defeat of the IS forces in Sirte decreased their visibility and increased the fluidity of the remaining troops, who probably number around several hundred. Many of this number are foreign fighters who seek to return home or travel elsewhere. In the short term these organizations seem destined for a profound regrouping and decentralization into more remote areas. The largest and most dangerous groups remain those tied to al-Qaeda, and to AQIM in particular. They could take advantage of the availability of the former fighters of IS and Ansar al-Sharia who have recently left their organizations. Given the political situation, Libya remains attractive for jihadist groups. Secondly, the trafficking market appears to be fairly closed because it is run by international operators with the help of Libyan militia networks, a convergence of alliances based on shared financial interests. At present, it is hard to compete with these actors, who have basically begun a process of specializing in and “industrializing” the trafficking business.

A Strategy for Success in Libya

November 2017

Emily Estelle has produced a thorough and expansive report for the American Enterprise Institute arguing America needs a new policy in Libya . The reports outlines a strategy for US policymakers to secure their critical interests in Libya and provides an assessment of the Libyan theatre. Estelle suggests current US foreign policy on Libya:

Prioritises short-term defense over long-term success. It has failed to stabilize Libya and defeat ISIS, and it has perpetuated the conditions that fuel recruitment for Salafi-jihadi groups. The focus on ISIS also ignores the full extent of the Salafi-jihadi threat in Libya, which includes a significant al Qaeda presence that US strategy does not meaningfully address.

The flaws of this strategy stem from a misunderstanding of the terrorist threat. The terrorist groups in Libya that threaten the US—al Qaeda, ISIS, and their affiliates—are manifestations of the global Salaf-jihadi movement. Their ultimate goal is violently transforming Muslim societies to establish a polity under a fundamentalist interpretation of shari’a. They use terrorist attacks when they believe those are most effective, but they also use conventional war, insurgency, and nonmilitary activities that we would normally call stabilization, reconstruction, and dispute resolution if they were not being carried out by our enemies. The US must finally recognize in Libya as elsewhere that defining our adversaries as terrorists and pursuing a purely counterterrorism strategy will lead to failure.

Libya’s Terrorism Challenge: Assessing Libya’s Salafi-Jihadi Threat

October 2017

In this useful and well researched report for the Middle East Institute, Lydia Sizer looks at Libya’s Salafi-jihadi threat. She concludes that:

Salafi-jihadis have maintained an active presence in Libya due to a mix of push and pull factors. Historic participation in such groups, declining standards of living, the historical marginalization of minorities, and a pervasive sense of victimhood have all made Libya a ripe jihadi recruiting ground. Many Salafi-jihadis offer the status, salary, and services that the fractured state cannot provide. These movements can be diminished through investments like educational programs, aid to war-torn regions, demilitarization programs, and improved intelligence sharing by border officials in Libya’s neighboring states. However, until the political crisis that has plagued Libya for over three years ends, there is little Libya’s international partners can do to help confront these movements. And as long as the crisis continues, civil unrest will persist and institutions will remain weak. Such a scenario would provide the requisite chaos for the present Salahi-jihadi movements to flourish.

In Libya Strike, Military Shows New Lethal Powers Under Trump

An interesting article by Paul Shinkman for US News looks at the legality of this latest round of US airstrikes against ISIS targets in Libya. He highlights that:

The latest operation is unique in that it did not take place in an “area of active hostilities,” a term the Obama administration used to clarify where the U.S. is and is not at war and, perhaps more importantly, where military commanders – not the president or his immediate team – would determine whether a drone strike or other deadly operation was appropriate….Until earlier this year, a still-classified portion of Libya was determined to be an area of active hostilities, as is still the case in a part of Somalia outside the capital, Mogadishu. Multiple sources who spoke to U.S. News confirm that designation for Libya has expired….That the military can now carry out such operations raises new questions about the general limits of its power in Africa and elsewhere: What now stops the Defense Department from carrying out drone strikes wherever it wants?

US Resumes Strikes Against ISIS in Libya

In an useful article for FDD’s Long War Journal, Thomas Joscelyn and Bill Roggio look at the bigger picture of US involvement against ISIS and other jihadist groups in Libya, looking at the impact of Operation Odyssey Lightening against ISIS in Sirte and speculating how many fighters may have fled south based on figures given by AFRICOM and the US State Department.

Between Aug. 1 and Dec. 19, 2016, AFRICOM conducted “495 precision airstrikes” as part of Operation Odyssey Lightning. The bombings took a heavy toll on Abu Bakr al Baghdadi’s loyalists in Sirte, according to AFRICOM. “While we are unable to provide specific numbers, we estimate that between 800-900 ISIS fighters were killed during Operation Odyssey Lightning in Sirte,” AFRICOM recently told FDD’s Long War Journal. The State Department previously estimated that 1,700 Islamic State fighters perished in Sirte. AFRICOM’s estimate covers only those killed in airstrikes, meaning that approximately half of the the jihadists’ casualties came in bombings.

These Libyans were once linked to al-Qaeda. Now they are politicians and businessmen

28 September 2017
In an interesting article for the Washington Post, Sudarsan Raghavan discusses the role of Abdelhakim Belhadj and other former Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) leaders in post-Gadafi Libya and Belhadj’s attempts to put his jihadi past behind him and position himself as a non-political businessman.

Theresa May can’t outsource counter-terrorism to Silicon Valley

21 September 2017

In an article for the Guardian, Alia Brahimi argues that there is a common yet misguided assumption that extreme ideological material, and its availability on the internet, is what drives terrorism. She says we have to ask ourselves honestly whether a reduction of extremist content online would reduce the threat from terrorism so long as catastrophic conditions persist in places such as Syria, Iraq and Libya.

Unofficial English Translation and Analysis of the Draft Libyan Constitution (as of August 2017, produced by Article 19)

Article 19 has produced an unofficial English translation of the Libyan Draft Constitution which was approved by members of the Constitutional Drafting Assembly (CDA) on 30 July 2017, and provides detailed legal analysis of the constitution and how it measures up to international human rights legislation.

Click here to access the report.

After the Fall: Views from the ground of international military intervention in post-Gadhafi Libya

In a report entitled ‘After the Fall: Views from the ground of international military intervention in post-Gadhafi Libya‘ published by Remote Control, Alison Pargeter elicits Libyan views on international operations in Libya and analyses the possible effects of such operations on Libya’s longer-term stability. Through interviews with a diverse section of Libyan society, the research paints a detailed picture of how international intervention, both covert and overt, is perceived by Libyans. She focuses on the international military interventions against ISIS in Sirte and the impact of these interventions.

Foreign intervention has generally elicited a negative response in Libya. However, given the extent of the chaos and fragmentation that has gripped the country, the various camps have been willing to accept intervention providing it supports their own interests or objectives. By the same token, when intervention has not suited their objectives, these camps have also used it as a stick to beat their opponents with.

The covert nature of Britain’s intervention has fuelled existing suspicions about ulterior motives in a climate already characterised by rumour and conspiracy. Libyans in general are deeply uneasy about the idea of foreign intervention, but also feel abandoned in the wake of the 2011 events. Some also feel angry that this abandonment left the country prey to interventions by regional powers.

Click here to read the full report.

How Libya’s Fezzan Became Europe’s New Border

31 July 2017

The International Crisis Group has published a new report entitled ‘How Libya’s Fezzan Became Europe’s New Border’ looks at how the principal gateway into Europe for refugees and migrants runs through the power vacuum in southern Libya’s Fezzan region:

European policymakers increasingly are looking at the Fezzan, Libya’s vast and scarcely populated south west, as their frontier against sub-Saharan African migrants and refugees traveling the Central Mediterranean route to Europe. In 2016, over 160,000 took this route from Libya on makeshift boats; most had entered through this region, which connects the country’s southern border with its coast. Several European countries, chiefly Italy, hope that stabilising the situation in the Fezzan and reviving its economy will help curb migrant flows. The idea has merit, but this will be no easy task and cannot succeed without also addressing the broader crises gripping the country. Any European effort to address governance, economic and security problems in the Fezzan should be coordinated with the internationally recognised government and linked to wider, nationwide initiatives to tackle issues that plague the country as a whole.

Click here to read the full report.

US Department of State Country Reports on Terrorism 2016

The US Department of State’s Bureau of Counter Terrorism and Countering Violent Extremism has released its Libya Country Report for 2016. It concludes that although the Libyan Government of National Accord (GNA)-aligned forces demonstrated that it could be a capable partner with the United States in the fight against ISIS, Libya lacks a comprehensive counterterrorism law and has not adopted a comprehensive strategy for countering violent extremism.

The GNA, despite internal conflict, proved capable of confronting the terrorist threat in Sirte, requested assistance from the United States, and joined the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS; however, neither the internationally recognized Tripoli-based GNA nor the legislative House of Representatives in Tobruk produced a strategy to counter the terrorist threat. The Libyan government did not pass any new legislation to confront the growing threat of terrorism throughout the country.

Due mainly to the internal political conflict and the role of numerous militias, Libyan law enforcement personnel lacked the capacity to detect, deter, respond to, or investigate terrorist incidents. There were no reported terrorism-related prosecutions in 2016.

Libya does not currently have a Countering the Financing of Terrorism (CFT) law and lacks the ability to freeze the assets of UN-designated individuals, per its obligations under the UN Security Council ISIS and al-Qa’ida sanctions regime, but has drafted a comprehensive Anti MOney Laudering (AML)/CFT law and expects to enact the law in 2017.

Libya has not adopted a comprehensive strategy for countering violent extremism. Continuing online threats, kidnappings, and assassinations of activists who speak out against violent extremists contributes to a culture of intimidation and self-censorship.

America’s Real Enemy: The Salafi-Jihadi Movement

July 2017

In this excellent, well-researched report for the American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats, Katherine Zimmerman looks at the threat posed to the US by the Salafi-Jihadist movement, arguing that just militarily targeting certain individuals or groups will never resolve this threat.

The United States cannot kill its way out of this war, nor will it defeat the movement by countering its ideology or messaging. The Salafi-jihadi movement is stronger today because current conditions in the Muslim world have induced Sunni communities to accept help from whoever offers it in order to survive. The movement’s strength stems from its relationships with the population, which Salafi-jihadi groups will continue to cultivate as long as current conditions persist. The Salafi-jihadi movement focuses on people. To win, the United States must also focus on the people in order to break the existing ties between the Sunni  populations and the Salafi-jihadi base. Concentrating on people is the only path that will lead to victory

Libya: From Intervention to Proxy War

July 2017

This Atlantic Council issue brief written by Karim Mezran and Elissa Miller gives an overview of international intervention in Libya since 2011. It concludes:

The West today faces a difficult choice in Libya. The disorder that enveloped the country following the 2011 NATO intervention makes any consideration of productive engagement in the country now an unattractive concept. However, it is possible to conceive of a well-planned targeted effort that could stabilize the country.

Tubu Trouble: State and Statelessness in the Chad-Sudan-Libya Triangle

June 2017

The Small Arms Survey has published a Working Paper entitled Tubu Trouble: State and Statelessness in the Chad–Sudan–Libya Triangle, which provides an overview of their recent and largely undocumented conflict dynamics. It reviews the evolution of Tibesti’s socio-political environment over the past few decades, including their most recent rebellion and its effects, and the tentative and partial redeployment of Chadian state authority in the region since 2011. It further discusses the repercussions of regional gold rushes since 2013, the prospects for a renewed rebellion in northern Chad, and the consequences of the fall of the Qaddafi regime in neighbouring Libya for regional security.

Click here to read the full report.

Haftar and Salafism: A Dangerous Game

6 June 2017

Ahmed Salah Ali has written a very useful and interesting article for the Atlantic Council, available in both English and Arabic, looking at the role of Salafist groups in Libya since 2011 and Haftar’s alliance with Madkhali Salafists in order to counter ‘takfiri’ jihadist Salafists. It provides an important overview of the key issues related to Salafism and its role in political and military dynamics in Libya currently.

Libya’s Religious Sector and Peacebuilding Efforts

16 March 2017

This comprehensive report from the US Institute of Peace is an excellent reference for understanding the many nuances of Libya’s religious sector including key religious trends, individuals, institutions, and prevailing attitudes about the role religion can play in peacebuilding efforts in Libya.

Derived from two surveys conducted in Libya in 2014 and 2016, this report strives to heighten understanding of the country’s religious sector and its impact on governance and society. The findings—which are bolstered by the local knowledge of Libyan researchers—map the major religious trends, institutions, and actors in the country to describe how Libyans perceive the contribution of the religious sector to building peace and fostering justice and democracy.

Ansar al-Sharia in Libya: An Enduring Threat 

February 2017
In a journal article for Perspectives on Terrorism published in February 2017, Henrik Gråtrud and Vidar Benjamin Skretting provide a useful and insightful study of Ansar al-Sharia in Libya and the threat the group continues to pose both locally and globally.
Ansar al-Sharia in Libya (ASL) is one of the most powerful jihadi groups in Libya and it might, in fact, represent a more significant long-term threat than IS’ provinces in Libya. However, there are few recent studies of ASL, so exactly what kind of threat the group poses has not been adequately understood. After examining the group’s evolution, ideology, strategy and violent activities, we find that ASL is, and most likely will remain, more of a local and regional threat than a global one. The group still poses a significant threat to Western interests, as it has carried out attacks against Western targets in Libya, has close ties to al-Qaida, and operates training camps for international jihadis within its territory.

The Jihadi Threat: ISIS, al-Qaeda, and Beyond

January 2017

This interesting and comprehensive report published by USIP is a consolidation of the inputs and analysis of twenty experts from thinktanks and universities across the USA and looks at how both ISIS and al-Qaeda have skillfully continued to evolve and proliferate, and what might be next.

Click here to access the full report.

IRI Releases Libya Poll Results

9 November 2016

The International Republican Institute released the results of polling in Libya focusing on local governance.

The Libya Political Agreement: Time for a Reset

4 November 2016

Crisis Group published a detailed report on the Skhirat agreement and its impact on Libya. The report notes that “A year ago, the conflict was between rival parliaments and their associated governments; today it is mainly between accord supporters and opponents, each with defectors from the original camps and heavily armed.” It advises the international community to avoid taking sides in this changed rivalry and suggests a new security agreement.

United States Institute of Peace Reports on Justice in Libya

7 September 2016

The United States Institute of Peace has produced three fascinating and comprehensive reports on the justice sector in Libya. The first is written by Peter Cole with Fiona Mangan and is entitled ‘Policy Libya: Form and Function of Policing since the 2011 Revolution‘. The second is ‘Tribe, Security, Justice and Peace in Libya Today‘ and the final report is by Fiona Mangan and Rebecca Murray and is entitled ‘Prisons and Detention in Libya‘.

Who Pays for ISIS in Libya?

24 August 2016

James Roslington and Jason Pack discuss the financing of ISIS in Libya is this report for Hate Speech International.

Post-revolutionary Discontent and F(r)actionalisation in the Maghreb: Managing the Tunisa-Libya Border Dynamics

August 2016

Grégory Chauzal Sofia Zavagli argue for bottom-up solutions to conflict in Tunisia and Libya in this Clingendael Report from the Netherlands Institute of International Relations.

Defeating the Islamic State: Remaining Challenges

8 July 2016

Andrew Engel of The Washington Institute has published a report on IS in Libya. The battle to uproot the Islamic State in Libya (ISL) from Sirte, the group’s de facto North African capital, may soon result in victory for the Western-backed Operation Binyan Marsous (Solid Structure). Although defeating ISL in the heart of Libya’s “oil crescent” is cause for celebration, the group will continue to conduct irregular warfare and could find safe haven in the southern desert, while some of its foreign fighters might return to their home countries to wage terrorist attacks.

Libya Since 2011: Political Transformation and Violence

24 May 2016

The Middle East Policy Council released an essay by Hanspeter Mattes entitled Libya Since 2011: Political Transformation and Violence. Mr. Mattes forecasts continuing violence and stalemate in Libya.

In Libya, Politics Precedes Victory

18 May 2016

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published In Libya, Politics Precedes Victory by Terek Megerisi in its Sada Journal in which he is sharply critical of foreign efforts to stabilize Libya.

Interview with Karim Mezran

16 May 2016

Atlantic Council Resident Senior Fellow Karim Mezran was interviewed by Ashish Kumar Sen about potential western military aid for Libya’s Government of National Accord.

Intervening Better: Europe’s Second Chance in Libya and A Quick Guide to Libya’s Main Players

13 May 2016

The European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) released a report Intervening Better: Europe’s Second Chance in Libya by Mattia Toaldo strongly advocating for support of the unity government. ECFR also released a Quick Guide to Libya’s Main Players.

Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy

May 2016

The Congressional Research Service released a report by long time Middle East analyst Christopher Blanchard entitled Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy. The report suggestions growing U.S. counterterrorism concerns and potential for expanding U.S. military involvement in Libya even as political consensus in the country remains elusive.

Struggling to Fight Islamic State in a Fractured Libya

12 May 2016

Frederic Wehrey of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published an Op-Ed in the Wall Street Journal entitled Struggling to Fight Islamic State in a Fractured Libya cautioning that Western focus on ISIS in Libya may further divide rather than unite the country.

What Will Interventions Look Like After Libya?

3 May 2016

PBS interviewed a number of leading Libya watchers about the NATO intervention in Libya. Karim Mezran characterized the conflict in Libya prior to NATO intervention as a civil war rather than a revolution and emphasized the importance of reconciliation and inclusion of Libyans who supported Qadhafi instead of a rush to elections in the aftermath of the war. A video about Benghazi is also included.

ISIS’s Courses of Action out of Sirte

29 April 2016

In her article for AEI’s Critical Threats site, Emily Estelle argues that the offensive against Sirte could successfully force IS to abandon the city and push the group south into the Fezzan. Estelle’s analysis may be premature, however, given that no Misratan militia commanders have yet backed the unity government plan and the composition of the task force itself remains to be determined. In fact, we believe that even if a full frontal assault materialized–a development which may not occur for months–IS may weather the attack. However, Ms Estelle is quite right in pointing out that the group could survive the conquest of Sirte and could easily establish itself in the Fezzan or in dispersed cells across the country.

Libyan Agreement on Life Support

26 April 2016

Writing for the Atlantic Council, Ronald Bruce St. John argues that the way forward for the political process in Libya is to “incorporate the traditional political model based on tribes and tribalism that has long bestowed legitimacy on Libyan governments.” Failure to do so risks exacerbating divisions rather than healing them.

Building a New Foundation for Stability in Libya

9 March 2016

This report by the Center for American Progress acknowledges the strategic complexity of US policy responses to ISIS in Libya: intervene, and threaten to undermine the process to form a functioning unity government; fail to intervene, and risk increasing the space within which ISIS can operate. The report offers some constructive responses, including forming a security council to co-ordinate anti-ISIS actions and share intelligence, providing assistance to vetted Libyan militias while pursuing the goal of unified national-level security, and providing border assistance to Libya’s neighbours, particularly Tunisia. 

Letter From Tripoli

4 March 2016

In this piece for Carnegie Europe’s Capitals Series, Tarek Megerisi notes that the atmosphere of crisis surrounding Libya is putting pressure on Europe to respond immediately and decisively. But, argues Megerisi, succumbing to such pressure would compound Libya’s problems, and ultimately Europe’s too. The emphasis of Europe’s response to Libya, he says, should be on providing a holistic solution rather than a necessarily swift one.

The Next Front Against ISIS

7 February 2016

Western support is an important part of tackling the growing threat of ISIS in Libya, but the West should first focus on bridging divides within Libya or else face exacerbating the country’s political fractures, argue Frederic Wehrey and Wolfram Lacher in this piece in Foreign Affairs. The article is published in full by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

The Prize: Fighting for Libya’s Energy Wealth

3 December 2015

In a report entitled The Prize: Fighting for Libya’s Energy Wealth, International Crisis Group draws attention to Libya’s most difficult challenge: creating a functioning unity government when all parties to the conflict are incentivised by the goal of controlling the country’s hydrocarbons and financial resources. Efforts must be made to de-link the conflict from these objectives, argues the report, including setting up parallel tracks to unity government negotiations on security and economic governance, and persuading the warring parties that the longer they fight, the less there is to fight over.

Between ISIS and a Failed State: The Saga of Libyan Islamists

August 2015

Brooking working paper Between ISIS and a Failed State: The Saga of Libyan Islamists by Omar Ashoor discussing Libyan Islamist groups.