On 26 January, France announced it is planning to reopen its embassy in Libya this year. On 25 January, Russia’s Foreign Minister suggested that election deadlines for Libya were not constructive. On 24 January, Libya, Niger, Chad and Sudan agreed to have a ministerial meeting on border control. On 22 January, the GNA Prime Minister Fayez al-Serraj met with the US Ambassador to Libya.

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On 22 January, Italian Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini said that France has no interest in stabilising the situation in Libya, ‘probably because it has oil interests that are opposed to those of Italy.’ On 18 January, German Chancellor Angela Merkel stated that Germany’s policy approach to Libya follows a similar style as the Italian government.

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On 13 January, UN Envoy to Libya Ghassan Salame travelled to southern Libya for meetings with local officials and dignitaries. On 13 January, the head of the GNA Fayez al-Serraj pulled Libya from the Arab Economic Summit.

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On 6 January, Fayez al-Serraj met with Russian Ambassador to Libya, Ivan Molotkov. On 5 January, Germany declared it will use its membership on the UN Security Council to support UNSMIL efforts. On 2 January, the GNA’s Interior Minister met with the British Charge d’Affairs.

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On 14 December, Italian diplomat Giuseppe Buccino Grimaldi was appointed as Italy’s new ambassador to Libya. On 14 December, US Colonel Adam Chalkley said conditions in Libya were improving for the return of a US diplomatic mission. On 18 December, the EU expanded its EUBAM to actively support Libyan authorities.

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On 5 December, the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, arrived in Rome for an unannounced two-day visit. On 4 December, Government of National Accord (GNA) Prime Minister, Fayez al-Serraj, traveled to Brussels to attend a meeting with NATO officials.

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On 16 November, the UN Security Council listed Salah Badi for sanctions. On 15 November, the US State Department renewed its ten-year US-Libya Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement. On 16 November, the LIA stated five EU countries paid out funds frozen by UN sanctions in 2011.

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On 12-13 November, Italy’s international conference on Libya in Palermo occurred. On 8 November, UNSMIL envoy Ghassan Salame officially confirmed that Libyan elections announced for the end of 2018 will not take place.

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On 29 October, Belgium radio station RTBF claimed that prosecutors are investigating whether Belgium banks had paid out dividends to Libyan bank accounts frozen under the 2011 UN Sanctions. On 17 and 22 October, Russian aircraft landed at the LNA’s al-Khadim airport.

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On 16 October, Italy’s Prime Minister declared that his country was ready to facilitate the Libyan reconciliation process at the “Sicily” International conference in November. On 18 October, the President of the European Parliament urged EU member states to take a unified stance on Libya at the conference.

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On 10 October, Italy invited the head of Libya’s House of Representatives to its “Sicily” international conference on Libya in November. Two days earlier Russia’s Foreign Minister confirmed that a Russian representative would attend.

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