On 16 April, Ramtane Lamamra, the former head of the AU’s Commission for Peace and Security and former Algerian Finance Minister, withdrew from the race to become the UN Special Envoy to Libya. On 14 April, Russian Foreign Minister, Lavrov, claimed that the UNSC P5 have agreed to hold a summit. Over the course of the last week, politicians from the Eastern-based parallel administration had calls with Algerian and Russian officials respectively.

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On 13 April, Russia allegedly sent Syrian fighters to Libya to fight for the LNA. The same day, the Sudanese MFA released a statement denying that any forces from its country were participating in the clashes in southern Tripoli or within Libya more broadly. This comes amid several photos circulating online claiming that Sudanese forces were killed on the Abu Grein axis.

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On 2 April, the GNA’s Foreign Minister said that the new EU Operation Irini ignored air borders and eastern Libyan land borders. On 1 April, the LNA claimed that a Turkish frigate fired a missile at the Watiya airbase, while stationed off the north-western coast of Libya near Sabratha.

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On 26 March, the EU launched Operation Irini to enforce the UN arms embargo on Libya. In an open letter published on 27 March, the US Ambassador to Libya, called on the Libyan authorities to stop the fighting and on 24 March, the acting UN Special Envoy to Libya strongly condemned the grave violation of the “humanitarian pause”.

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On 21 March, the UNSMIL welcomed the “positive responses” by the GNA and LNA to the ceasefire calls. However, fighting does not appear to have ceased on Tripoli’s southern frontlines. On 23 March, Serraj held a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Conte. On 18 March, the GNA’s Ministry of Interior announced that it would be signing a contract for the purchase of an Airbus 135 and Airbus 145.

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Over the last week, the GNA’s Minister of Interior, Fathi Bashaagha, travelled to France and the UK for meetings. Angela Merkel interacted with the leader of the LNA, Haftar and head of the GNA, Serraj emphasising the need to implement a permanent ceasefire. From 12 March, the current Deputy Envoy to Libya, Stephanie Williams, will serve as the acting Envoy to Libya. UNSMIL also called for an immediate humanitarian cessation of hostilities to allow local authorities to respond to the spread of COVID-19.

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On 9 March, Haftar met with French President Macron in France and travelled to Berlin on 10 March to meet with German officials. On 4 March, a high level international diplomatic delegation featuring representatives from France, Italy, and Germany met Haftar at his headquarters in Rajma.

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On 1 March, a delegation from the pro-LNA government travelled to Syria where they signed multiple agreements of cooperation. On 2 March, the Libyan delegation met with Syrian President al-Assad. The same day, the UN Special Envoy to Libya, Salame, publicly resigned from his position.

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Two separate lawsuits against Haftar are progressing in the US . On 22 February, Bashaagha said that the GNA would be willing to host a US military base in Libya. On 22 February, Erdogan said that two Turkish soldiers had died in Libya. On 20 February, Serraj attended a closed-door meeting with Erdogan in Istanbul. On 19 February, Russia’s defence minister Shoigu met with Haftar in Moscow.

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On 11 February, the UNSC adopted resolution 2509 (2020) extending the authorization of measures against the illicit export of crude oil. On 12 February, the UNSC endorsed resolution 2510 supporting the key points of the final communique of the Berlin Conference. On 17 February, the EU’s chief diplomat Josep Borrell announced that they agreed to establish a military mission to enforce the UN arms embargo on Libya.

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On 5 February, the Algerian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Boukadoum, met the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, in Rajma. On 6 February, the GNA’s Minister of Interior, Bashaagha, met with a German government delegation. On 9 – 10 February, the UN-mediated “Economic and Financial Track” Dialogue took place in Cairo. On 10 February, US Ambassador to Libya, Norland, met with Bashaagha discussing the dismantlement of militias.

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On 29 January, Salamé briefed the UNSC. On 29 January, the Turkish government confirmed it had four frigates and a refuelling vessel in the central Mediterranean. The same day, Macron accused Turkey of violating the Berlin conference. On 30 January, Algerian Prime Minister Djerad proposed that his country host a Libya “reconciliation forum” on behalf of the AU. On 2 February, Algeria’s President, Tebboune, proposed a meeting for Libya’s multiple “tribes” to be held in a regional country in order to create a solution to the current Libya crisis.

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On 23 January, Algerian Foreign Minister Boukadoum held a meeting with foreign ministers from Mali, Egypt, Chad, Niger, Sudan, and Tunisia, the latter five nations sharing a common border with Libya. On 23 January, Greek Prime Minister, Mitsotakis stated the EU would not agree to a political solution to the Libya crisis while the GNA and Turkey maintain their maritime MoU. On 26 January, Turkish President Erdogan, met with Algerian Prime Minister, Tebboune, in Algeria. On 27 January, German Foreign Minister Maas met EU High Representative Borrell to discuss the situation in Libya. On 27 January, UNSMIL issued a statement saying it deeply regrets the “continued blatant violations of the arms embargo in Libya”.

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On 19 January, Germany held an international conference on Libya in Berlin including multiple state leaders and high-level delegates. The conference concluded with unanimous agreement on a final 55-point communiqué. The communiqué called for the UNSC to create an international committee to monitor the ceasefire and to impose sanctions on violations of the ceasefire.

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On 8 January, Turkey and Russia jointly called for a ceasefire in Libya from 12 January. UN Envoy to Libya, Salame, welcomed the ceasefire and called upon the international community to make the most of the momentum to help reach a consensus through the “Berlin process”. On 8 January, Serraj refused to see Italian Prime Minister Conte after learning that Haftar had also been invited and received by the Italian leader. On 9 January, a delegation of senior US officials, met in Rome with Bashaagha and Haftar. On 11 January, Russian President Putin and German Chancellor Merkel met in Moscow to discuss Libya. On 14 January, Merkel’s office announced that she had agreed with the UN to go ahead with holding the Berlin conference on 19 January.

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On 1 January, the Arab League convened an exceptional meeting in Cairo but failed to reach a consensus on how to de-escalate the conflict in Libya. On 2 January, Turkey’s parliament approved a bill to enable troops to be deployed to Libya to support the GNA. On 2 January, Egyptian President al-Sisi condemned in the “strongest terms” the Turkish parliament’s authorization. On 6 January, the GNA announced that a planned visit to Tripoli on 7 January by the newly appointed diplomat-in-chief of the EU Joseph Borrell and the foreign ministers of the UK, France, Germany and Italy had been postponed. On 6 January, Serraj arrived in Algeria to meet with the newly-elected Algerian President Tebboune.

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