On 4 August, US National Security Advisor O’Brien said President Trump had discussed the need to de-escalate the situation in Libya in phone calls with French President Macron, Egyptian President al-Sisi and Emirati Crown Prince Bin Zayed. On 7 August, a high-level US delegation held separate, virtual discussions with GNA National Security Advisor and HoR Foreign Affairs Committee Chair. On 10 August, Norland met with Egyptian officials in Cairo. On the same day, Norland met with HoR Speaker Aqeela Saleh. On 6 August, Turkish Foreign Minister Cavusolgu and Maltese Foreign Minister Bartolo met with al-Serraj. The same day, Egyptian Foreign Minister Shoukry and his Greek counterpart Dendias announced the signing of a maritime demarcation deal. On 10 August, Germany, France and Italy reportedly moved ahead with plans to impose sanctions on violators of the UN arms embargo.

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On 30 July, the deputy spokesman for the Russian Foreign Ministry, Zaytsev, stated that Russia and Turkey would be holding a third round of consultations in Moscow. On 27 July, Turkish Defence Minister Akar said that continued external military support represents the ‘greatest obstacle to peace’ in Libya. On 30 July, the US House of Representatives Foreign Relations Committee agreed to amendments to the ‘Libya Stabilisation Act’ and unanimously approved the bill. On 27 July, US Chargé d’Affaires Harris travelled to Misrata and two days later travelled to Benghazi. On 4 August, the German Hamburg frigate went to support the EU’s Operation Irini to enforce the UN arms embargo.

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On 22 July, Turkey and Russia announced that they were working toward a ceasefire in Libya and would consider a joint working group on Libya, holding consultations in Moscow. The same day, Egypt’s Foreign Minister Shukry had held separate phone calls on Libya with his French and German counterparts. Also on 22 July, the spokesperson for the UNSG said that the UN was deeply concerned about the Egyptian Parliament’s recent decision to authorise the deployment of troops in Libya. On 18 July, French President Macron, German Chancellor Merkel and Italian Prime Minister Conte had issued a joint statement in threatening sanctions against violations to the UN arms embargo.

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On 15 July, Turkish President Erdogan and US President Trump agreed to strengthen their cooperation on Libya. The same day, AFRICOM said it had verified photographic evidence of landmines and IEDs allegedly found in Tripoli that had been laid by the Russian Wagner Group. On 16 July, US State Department Assistant Secretary Schenker described the EU mission to stop arms shipments to Libya as not being ‘serious’ and accused the EU of being ‘biased’ for only criticising Turkey. On 17 July, France rebuffed Schenker’s assertions. On 19 July, Egyptian president Sisi held a phone call with US President Trump in which the two leaders reportedly agreed on maintaining a ceasefire. On 20 July, Egypt’s parliament authorised the deployment of Egyptian troops on combat missions outside the country.

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On 9 July, the Egyptian military said it had carried out a large-scale military drill near the Libyan border called ‘Hasm 2020.’ On 13 July, the Turkish Foreign Minister said that military preparations had been made to seize Sirte and Jufra airbase if the LNA did not withdraw from both locations. On 10 July, Aqeela Saleh met with the acting UN Envoy to discuss finding an inclusive political solution to the Libyan crisis. On 8 July, Russian Foreign Minister said Russia was working with Turkey on an immediate ceasefire agreement in Libya.

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On 3 July, a Turkish delegation made an unannounced visit to Tripoli to meet with senior GNA officials. On 1 July, France temporarily withdrew its participation from NATO’s Operation Sea Guardian. On 3 July, the speaker of the HoR, Saleh, held a meeting in Moscow with Russian Foreign Minister, Lavrov. On 1 July, a high-level US delegation undertook a meeting with LNA officials to discuss DDR initiatives. Also on 1 July, Saleh, met with Greek Foreign Minister, Dendias, in Tubruq.

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On 25 June, a convoy of Russian and other foreign mercenaries entered Sharara oilfield. On 26 June, French President Macron had a meeting with Russian President Putin where the two discussed Libya. On 24 June, the US State Department met virtually with the GNA’s Ministry of Interior to discuss DDR. On 25 June, France, Italy and Germany released a joint statement calling for an end to foreign interference in Libya.

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On 20 June, Egyptian President al-Sisi stated that Egypt has the legitimate right to intervene in Libya. In the wake of Sisi’s statements, many of the foreign actors involved in Libya have released statements. On 22 June, the US NSC stressed the need to build on the UN’s 5 +5 talks, the Cairo initiative, and the Berlin process. The same day, the head of the GNA, al-Serraj, hosted a closed-door meeting in Zuwara with a US AFRICOM delegation. Also on 22 June, the UNHRC adopted a resolution strongly condemning all acts of violence in Libya and urging the UN to dispatch a fact-finding mission to the country.

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On 14 June, the planned talks on Libya between Russian FM Lavrov and Russian Defence Minister Shogu and their Turkish counterparts were delayed. On 10 June, Egyptian President al-Sisi and US President Trump spoke about the Libya file over the phone. The same day, UNSMIL said that the GNA and LNA delegations were “fully engaged” in the third round of JMC 5+5. On 12 June, the Turkish Ministry of Defence announced that it conducted an 8-hour long coordinated Open Sea Training exercise off the Libyan coast.

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On 6 June, Egyptian President Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, flanked by the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, and Speaker of the HoR, Aqeela Saleh, announced a new peace initiative for Libya. Following this announcement, there has been a flurry of international activity and reaction.

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On 29 May, the US State Department commended the Government of Malta’s for seizing counterfeit Libyan currency. On 30 May, Russia’s MFA issued a statement noting that a contract for the printing of Libyan dinars was signed in 2015. On 1 June, UNSG Guterres held a phone call with Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov. On 29 May, AFRICOM discussed training and exercise with Tunisia. On 30 May, Italian Prime Minister Conte spoke to the head of GNA, al-Serraj, and the next day he spoke to the head of the LNA, Haftar. On 1 June, French Foreign Minister Le Drian held a phone call with Serraj.

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On 26 May, AFRICOM assessed that Russia had deployed military fighter aircraft to Libya. Just before, PMCs belonging to the Russian Wagner Group had entered Bani Walid and some were being evacuated by air to Jufra. Over the last week, politicians from the US, Turkey, UAE, France and the UN called for a political solution in Libya.

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On 17 May, the Speaker of the HoR, Saleh, had a phone conversation with the German Ambassador Owcza. This followed exchanges with the Maltese and British Ambassadors. On 16 May, the head of the GNA, al-Serraj, held a phone call with the NATO Secretary-General Stoltenberg. Just a day before, Serraj, held a phone call with Turkish President Erdogan. On 15 May, the second batch of Turkish medical supplies delivered through Tunisia’s Djerba Airport arrived in Tripoli.

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On 7 May, the LNA launched shells within the vicinity of the GNA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Supreme Court, and the Turkish and Italian Ambassadors’ residencies. On 11 May, the Foreign Ministers of Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece and the UAE issued a joint declaration in which they expressed concern over the current escalation in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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On 30 April, the GNA’s Foreign Minister issued a statement expressing deep concern to the French Foreign Ministry about the sighting of a French fighter jet over the skies of Misrata and Abu Grein. Throughout last week, most of the major international players in Libya have issued statements in reaction to LNA head Haftar’s speech on 27 April in which he declared he had the people’s mandate to abolish the LPA and establish military rule in Libya. The reactions of Haftar’s main backers, namely the UAE, Egypt and Russia, have varied.

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On 23 April, the head of the HoR, Saleh called for support for political reform. On 27 April, the acting UN Envoy to Libya, Stephanie Williams, welcomed Saleh’s political initiative. The US embassy in Libya reacted to Haftar’s televised address from 27 April.

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