On 26 May, AFRICOM assessed that Russia had deployed military fighter aircraft to Libya. Just before, PMCs belonging to the Russian Wagner Group had entered Bani Walid and some were being evacuated by air to Jufra. Over the last week, politicians from the US, Turkey, UAE, France and the UN called for a political solution in Libya.

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On 17 May, the Speaker of the HoR, Saleh, had a phone conversation with the German Ambassador Owcza. This followed exchanges with the Maltese and British Ambassadors. On 16 May, the head of the GNA, al-Serraj, held a phone call with the NATO Secretary-General Stoltenberg. Just a day before, Serraj, held a phone call with Turkish President Erdogan. On 15 May, the second batch of Turkish medical supplies delivered through Tunisia’s Djerba Airport arrived in Tripoli.

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On 7 May, the LNA launched shells within the vicinity of the GNA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Supreme Court, and the Turkish and Italian Ambassadors’ residencies. On 11 May, the Foreign Ministers of Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece and the UAE issued a joint declaration in which they expressed concern over the current escalation in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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On 30 April, the GNA’s Foreign Minister issued a statement expressing deep concern to the French Foreign Ministry about the sighting of a French fighter jet over the skies of Misrata and Abu Grein. Throughout last week, most of the major international players in Libya have issued statements in reaction to LNA head Haftar’s speech on 27 April in which he declared he had the people’s mandate to abolish the LPA and establish military rule in Libya. The reactions of Haftar’s main backers, namely the UAE, Egypt and Russia, have varied.

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On 23 April, the head of the HoR, Saleh called for support for political reform. On 27 April, the acting UN Envoy to Libya, Stephanie Williams, welcomed Saleh’s political initiative. The US embassy in Libya reacted to Haftar’s televised address from 27 April.

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On 16 April, Ramtane Lamamra, the former head of the AU’s Commission for Peace and Security and former Algerian Finance Minister, withdrew from the race to become the UN Special Envoy to Libya. On 14 April, Russian Foreign Minister, Lavrov, claimed that the UNSC P5 have agreed to hold a summit. Over the course of the last week, politicians from the Eastern-based parallel administration had calls with Algerian and Russian officials respectively.

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On 13 April, Russia allegedly sent Syrian fighters to Libya to fight for the LNA. The same day, the Sudanese MFA released a statement denying that any forces from its country were participating in the clashes in southern Tripoli or within Libya more broadly. This comes amid several photos circulating online claiming that Sudanese forces were killed on the Abu Grein axis.

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On 2 April, the GNA’s Foreign Minister said that the new EU Operation Irini ignored air borders and eastern Libyan land borders. On 1 April, the LNA claimed that a Turkish frigate fired a missile at the Watiya airbase, while stationed off the north-western coast of Libya near Sabratha.

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On 26 March, the EU launched Operation Irini to enforce the UN arms embargo on Libya. In an open letter published on 27 March, the US Ambassador to Libya, called on the Libyan authorities to stop the fighting and on 24 March, the acting UN Special Envoy to Libya strongly condemned the grave violation of the “humanitarian pause”.

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On 21 March, the UNSMIL welcomed the “positive responses” by the GNA and LNA to the ceasefire calls. However, fighting does not appear to have ceased on Tripoli’s southern frontlines. On 23 March, Serraj held a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Conte. On 18 March, the GNA’s Ministry of Interior announced that it would be signing a contract for the purchase of an Airbus 135 and Airbus 145.

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Over the last week, the GNA’s Minister of Interior, Fathi Bashaagha, travelled to France and the UK for meetings. Angela Merkel interacted with the leader of the LNA, Haftar and head of the GNA, Serraj emphasising the need to implement a permanent ceasefire. From 12 March, the current Deputy Envoy to Libya, Stephanie Williams, will serve as the acting Envoy to Libya. UNSMIL also called for an immediate humanitarian cessation of hostilities to allow local authorities to respond to the spread of COVID-19.

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On 9 March, Haftar met with French President Macron in France and travelled to Berlin on 10 March to meet with German officials. On 4 March, a high level international diplomatic delegation featuring representatives from France, Italy, and Germany met Haftar at his headquarters in Rajma.

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On 1 March, a delegation from the pro-LNA government travelled to Syria where they signed multiple agreements of cooperation. On 2 March, the Libyan delegation met with Syrian President al-Assad. The same day, the UN Special Envoy to Libya, Salame, publicly resigned from his position.

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Two separate lawsuits against Haftar are progressing in the US . On 22 February, Bashaagha said that the GNA would be willing to host a US military base in Libya. On 22 February, Erdogan said that two Turkish soldiers had died in Libya. On 20 February, Serraj attended a closed-door meeting with Erdogan in Istanbul. On 19 February, Russia’s defence minister Shoigu met with Haftar in Moscow.

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On 11 February, the UNSC adopted resolution 2509 (2020) extending the authorization of measures against the illicit export of crude oil. On 12 February, the UNSC endorsed resolution 2510 supporting the key points of the final communique of the Berlin Conference. On 17 February, the EU’s chief diplomat Josep Borrell announced that they agreed to establish a military mission to enforce the UN arms embargo on Libya.

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On 5 February, the Algerian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Boukadoum, met the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, in Rajma. On 6 February, the GNA’s Minister of Interior, Bashaagha, met with a German government delegation. On 9 – 10 February, the UN-mediated “Economic and Financial Track” Dialogue took place in Cairo. On 10 February, US Ambassador to Libya, Norland, met with Bashaagha discussing the dismantlement of militias.

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