On 27 November, the GNA signed an agreement on maritime boundaries in the Mediterranean Sea with Turkey, along with an MoU to expand security and military cooperation. On 2 December, Speaker of the Tubruq-based HoR demanded to have the MoU retracted. On 2 December, the UNSC issued a statement expressing their “deep concern at the recent escalation of violence in Libya”.

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On 21 November, members of the US Senate introduced a piece of legislation called ‘the Libya Stabilization Act’. Former Libyan ambassador to the UAE, Aref al-Nayed, met with US NSC officials twice ‘this fall’. On 21 November, an AFRICOM unarmed remotely piloted aircraft was lost over Tripoli. On 20 November, an Italian Air Force MQ-9A Predator B crashed near the city of Tarhouna.

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On 14 November, the US State Department released a statement directly addressing the LNA and calling on it to “end its offensive on Tripoli.” On 13 November, representatives of the US State Department started a US-Libya Security Dialogue in Washington, DC with the GNA.

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In an interview on 4 November, Haftar said that Qatari and Turkish support to the GNA will probably delay his troops’ advances and framed foreign support for the LNA as counterterrorism cooperation. He wished the Berlin conference success if it ever took place.

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On 3 November, the head of the GNA, Fayez al-Serraj, and US Ambassador to Libya, Richard Norland, met in London. On 2 November, Italy’s deal with the GNA on migration was automatically renewed without amendments. The GNA and UN formally reopened Mitiga airport on 29 October and said that they planned to resume flights in the next two weeks.

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On 26 October, US Embassy officials travelled to Benina to meet with notable eastern figures and discuss efforts to end the fighting around Tripoli and seek justice for US victims of the 11 September 2012 attack in Benghazi. On 27 October, the German foreign minister and UN Envoy discussed the Berlin conference in Tripoli. Russia hosted its first Africa summit which was attended by Serraj and eastern government representatives.

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On 16 October, NOC chairman Mustafa Sanallah met with key US officials in Washington to discuss the potential increase of oil outputs, investment opportunities and transparency in the Libyan oil sector. On 16 October, the chairman of the US House Foreign Affairs panel on the Middle East introduced a proposal “to clarify and strengthen American policy in support of a peaceful diplomatic resolution to the Libyan conflict.”

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The planned “Berlin Conference” on Libya will be delayed until at least November. On 11 October, the UN Envoy to Libya said he remained hopeful that the Berlin Conference would lead to a UN Security Council resolution preventing foreign countries from escalating the crisis in Libya, as well as the implementation of mechanisms to enforce the arms embargo.

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On 6 October, UNSMIL published a statement condemning airstrikes on the Equestrian Club in Tripoli’s Janzour neighbourhood. On 4 October, UNSMIL issued a statement expressing alarm at “indications that parallel, unrecognized authorities in Libya” are threatening the NOC and its subsidiary Brega.

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On 26 September, France and Italy co-chaired a ministerial meeting on Libya on the sidelines of the UNGA. The meeting was attended by representatives from the US, the UK, the UAE, Germany, Russia, Turkey, Egypt, China, the UN, the EU, the Arab League and the African Union.

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On 18 September, Conte and Macron met in Rome to discuss cooperation on Libya. On 19 September, US Ambassador to Libya Richard Norland met with the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, in Dubai. On 23 September, French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said France will chair a meeting on Libya on 26 September on the side lines of the UN General Assembly in New York.

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On 11 September, Germany’s ambassador to Libya announced that Germany would host a conference on Libya in conjunction with the UN as a follow on to this year’s General Assembly discussions. On 15 September, the UK appointed Nicholas Hopton as its new chargé d’affaires.

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On 8 September, the French newspaper Liberation published an interview with UN Special Envoy to Libya, Ghassan Salame, who stated his belief that a political agreement between the head of the Libyan National Army (LNA), Khalifa Haftar and the Government of National Accord was “conceivable”.

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On 26 August, the head of the GNA, Fayez al-Serraj, met with the new Commander of AFRICOM, General Stephen Townsend, and US Ambassador to Libya, Richard Norland. On 30 August, Norland met with the head of the High Council of State (HCS), Khalid al-Mishri. On 29 August, the UN published a report outlining the UNSG overview of the Libyan crisis as presented to the UN Security Council.

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On 23 August, France, UK, US, Italy, Egypt and the UAE met as a part of the P3+3 countries in Paris to “study and evaluate the security and financial conditions in Libya.” On 26 August, the G7 summit in France released a statement calling for an international conference on Libya.

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