On 23 October, delegations from the GNA and LNA signed a ceasefire agreement. On the same day, the first commercial passenger flight from Tripoli landed at Benghazi’s Benina airport. On 20 October, GNA Commander of the Sirte-Jufra Operations Room, Beit al-Mal, called upon the head of the GNA, al-Serraj, to remove Libyan Media Foundation chief Bayou from his office. On 21 October, Sabratha armed forces clashed with the al-Shalfouh militia from Ajalat. On 24 October, spokesperson for the GNA Volcano of Rage Operation, Qananou, urged UNSMIL to send monitoring teams to Sirte, Jufra and Brak al-Shati airbase.

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On 14 October, Rada reportedly detained the commander of the Zawiyyan Coastguard. On 15 October, GNA and LNA traded accusations of provoking altercations at the Sirte-Jufra frontline. On 16 October, the first flight from Tripoli’s Mitiga Airport arrived at Benghazi’s Benina Airport after more than a year. On 17 October, the LNA sent reinforcements belonging to the 128 Brigade. On 18 October, 12 unidentified bodies were found in mass graves in Tarhouna. On 19 October, military leaders met in Geneva for dialogues within the 5+5 JMC framework.

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On 8 October, the GNA Defence Minister, al-Namroush, warned that LNA Commander Haftar was preparing to launch an attack in the Bani Walid, Ghariyan and Tarhouna regions. Claims by the LNA have also emerged that the GNA is planning to launch an attack on the western oil fields and facilities of Sharara and al-Feel.

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On 3 October, HoR Speaker Saleh met with the eastern-based interim government’s MFA al-Huweij. On 30 September, the Attorney General’s Office announced that several top Libyan officials had been arrested or charged with corruption. On 29 September, the GNA’s MoD announced that it had opened enrolment. On 29 September, a district court judge in Virginia ruled that lawsuits against LNA head Haftar should go forward.

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On 28 September, military and police delegations from western and eastern Libya met in Egypt. On 24 September, violent clashes reportedly occurred between GNA-aligned forces in Tajoura. On 23 September, LNA Commander Haftar and Speaker of the HoR Saleh met in Cairo with Egyptian President al-Sisi. On 23 September, a Mi-24 helicopter crashed at Sawknah. On 21 September, renewed protests against corruption occurred in Benghazi.

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On 16 September, GNA/PC head al-Serraj announced on live television that he would ‘hand over’ his duties. On 18 September, Kufra residents staged mass protests in front of the town’s municipality headquarters. On 14 September, the GNA’s MoI allegedly issued a decree to create a committee for the purpose of integrating fighters and armed groups.

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On 15 September, new reports emerged stating that head of the GNA, al-Serraj, was planning to resign. From 11-13 September, protests occurred throughout eastern Libya. On 13 September, the eastern-based Interim Government submitted its resignation to the Speaker of the Tubruq-based House of Representatives (HoR), Aqeela Saleh. On 11 September, participants in the so-called Libya Dialogue held in Bouznika, Morocco stated that they had agreed upon ‘criteria, transparent mechanisms and objectives’ for the appointments of new individuals to key posts.

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On 3 September, the PC of the GNA announced that the GNA’s Minister of Interior (MoI), Bashaagha, had been re-instated. On 7 September, the GNA’s VoR spokesperson, Gununu, announced hat it had taken down a helicopter belonging to the LNA near the Sirte-Jufra frontlines. On 2 September, Gununu accused LNA forces of violating a declared ceasefire for the second time in 3 days. On 4 September, the spokesperson for the GNA Sirte-Jufra Operations Room, Drah, denied that mercenaries from the Russian PMC Wagner had pulled out of Sirte and Jufra.

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On 21 August, the GNA announced a nationwide ceasefire. The speaker of the HoR, Saleh, reiterated the call for a ceasefire along similar terms. On 23 August, the LNA spokesperson, al-Mismari, labelled the GNA’s effort as a ‘marketing stunt’ while not commenting on the HoR statement. Also on 23 August, multiple protests occurred throughout the western region, specifically in Tripoli and in Zawiyya.

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On 12 August, head the LNA, Haftar, promoted 448 LNA officers. On 13 August, photographs outside of Khoms Port purportedly showed a Turkish G-class frigate. The same day, Turkey and the GNA signed a MoU outlining enhanced economic cooperation. On 11 August, a security breach in Jalu prompted the formation of a joint-security room.

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Over the last week, both the GNA and LNA have continued to build up forces near Sirte and Jufra. On 5 August, the GNA officials met with the Italian Defence Minister, Lorenzo Guerini. On 6 August, Haftar, met with the LNA Operation Room and Military Region Commanders in Benghazi. On 7 August, the TPF released a statement condemning the Muslim Brotherhood. On 8 August, al-Serraj, met with the Audit Bureau, Anti-Corruption Commission and Administrative Control Authority.

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Over last week, the head of the LNA, Haftar, toured LNA units. LNA spokesman al-Mismari stated that a ceasefire could be implemented only after Turkey leaves Libya ‘completely’. Over the last week, tensions in Sirte still remained high and clashes broke out in Zawiyya. On 29 July, Libya’s PC said that it had formed a committee to investigate the visit of French writer Bernard-Henri Lévy to Libya. On 28 July, Libyan Ambassador to the UN al-Sunni criticised the ‘selective’ approach of the UN sanctions committee. On 27 July, the Speaker of the HoR, Saleh, met with his Moroccan counterpart and the following day, the head of the HCS, al-Mishri, spoke at a press conference in Rabat and said that the HCS and the Tubruq-based HoR have the potential to reach a political solution.

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On 24 July, AFRICOM said it had mounting evidence for heavy weapons delivery from Russia to the Wagner Group in Libya. On 28 July, Head of UNSMIL, Stephanie Williams, announced the start of the international audit of the two branches of the CBL. Both the GNA and LNA forces continued to build up forces around Sirte last week

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On 16 July, Egyptian President Sisi met with a delegation of Libyan tribal chiefs; followingly, they authorised Egyptian intervention in Libya. Throughout the week, forces build up and posturing continued on Sirte frontlines. On 15 July, Libyan judicial officials said that the international audit of the Tripoli-based CBL and the parallel eastern-based CBL would begin. The same day, the GNA’s Joint Operations Room issued letters to armed groups in 12 civilian locations around Tripoli, demanding that they evacuate their headquarters within 24 hours.

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On 13 July, the HoR said that the Egyptian armed forces have the right to interfere in Libya should they see an imminent threat. On 13 July, Juwaili issued an official decree to create a new joint force to secure the western region. On 11 July, UNSMIL held a virtual meeting with the GNA MoI to discuss SSR and DDR efforts. On 12 July, Serraj met with the GNA military region commanders while LNA forces continued to mobilise to Sirte. On 8 and 9 July, clashes occurred between militias in Janzour that resulted in at least 10 people being killed.

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