On 28 January, tensions boiled over between Emad Trabelsi’s General Security Force (GSF) and the Special Deterrence Force (Rada). On 26 January, clashes occurred between the 55 Battalion, aligned with the GNA Ministry of Defence, and the 3 Unit, aligned with the GNA Ministry of Interior. On 29 January, reports in local Libyan media claimed that the UN-mediated 5+5 Joint Military Committee (JMC) would hold its second meeting in Sirte on 4 February.

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On 19-20 January, representatives from the HoR and the HCS met in Egypt and agreed to hold a referendum on a constitutional proposal before the national elections scheduled for 24 December 2021. On 23 January, delegations from the HoR and HCS also met in Morocco, to discuss the implementation of some sort of “power sharing” agreement between Libya’s regions. On 23 January, a senior GNA military delegation met with the Chadian president to discuss organised crime, terrorism, and illegal immigration. On 24 January, the GNA Ministry of Interior deployed forces to Tarhouna following riots and destruction of property.

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On 12 January, the GNA’s Defence Minister reportedly sign so-called ‘code of honour’ agreement with the GNA’s Chief of Staff, and the commanders of the GNA’s western, central and Tripoli military zones. This step is meant to quiet otherwise rising intra-Tripolitanian militia tensions. On 18 January, the Head of the GNA appointed the leaders of the ‘Stability Support Apparatus’, a new entity to undertake operations related to national security issues.

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On 8 January, the GNA Minister of Interior announced the launch of Operation ‘Snake Hunting’ to target militants and human smugglers in Libya’s western region. On 9 January, senior figures in western Libya issued a joint statement reiterating their support for a new transitional National Unity Government to prepare the national elections planned for 24 December 2021.

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On 29 December, the HoR-aligned government in eastern Libya temporarily appointed a new chief for the Internal Security Department, Brigadier General Muhammed Hassan Kamil al-Tarhouni. On 31 December, the GNA issued a decree allocating 1 billion LYD to its Ministry of Defence. On 3 January, armed skirmishes occurred in Sebha between the LNA and GNA-aligned forces. On 3 January, a Madkhali armed group attacked a cemetery in Surman.

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On 24 December, Haftar called on Libyans to take up arms to remove Turkish forces from Libyan soil. On 23 December both the GNA and the LNA issued statements accusing each other of mobilising on the Sirte-Jufra frontline. On 25 December, GNA-aligned forces and the LNA conducted a prisoner exchange.

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On 14 December, clashes occurred between the Sirte Military Police and the LNA’s 128 Brigade. On 15 December, UNSMIL confirmed that the LPDF is unable to agree on a new Libyan transitional executive authority. On 16 December, the GNA Minister of Defence announced he had formed a committee to follow up on LNA ‘war crimes’.

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On 11 December, the GNA Defence Minister claimed in an interview that the LNA had violated its ceasefire agreement with the GNA. On 12 December, the ‘former’ commander of the TRB, Haithem Tajouri, returned to Libya. On 14 December, 32 members of the LPDF threatened to resign.

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Over the last week, the LNA strengthened its defenses and mobilized troops, particularly on the Sirte-Jufra axis. On 5 December, the Libyan Revolutionaries Leadership Gathering held a conference in Zawiyya where it ‘urged all Libyan authorities to work toward activating the role of the Libyan National Guard’. On 6 December, the LNA issued a decree calling on its troops on the Sirte-Jufra frontlines to assume ‘a state of readiness.’. On the same day, the LNA mobilised in preparation to capture a military camp in Ubari. On 8 December, LNA forces detained a Turkish ship, which was apparently transporting medical products to Misrata port.

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On 25 November, Acting Head of UNSMIL, Stephanie Williams convened the third round of virtual meetings of the LPDF. From 23 – 28 November, more than 120 deputies from the HoR, HCS, and the boycotting Tripoli-based HoR met in Tangier, Morocco. On 26 November, a European tracking system recorded that military aircraft from Turkey landing at the al-Watiya Air Base.

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On 23 November, a new virtual round of the UN-led Libyan Political Dialogue Forum (LPDF) began. On 22 November, representatives from both the Tripoli-based and Tubruq-based House of Representatives (HoR) travelled to Tangier, Morocco. On 18 November, head of the Audit Bureau, Shakshak, referred the head of the GNA al-Serraj to the Public Prosecutor. On 18 November, the GNA’s Volcano of Rage said that Wagner mercenaries and Sudanese Janjaweed forces were still ‘flooding into’ Sirte.

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On 10 November, female lawyer and human rights activist Hanan al-Baraasi was shot dead in Benghazi. On 11 November, the GNA’s MFA announced that Libya’s borders with Tunisia would be reopening on 14 November. On 12 November, the participants of the 5+5 JMC dialogues, announced that they would ‘immediately’ reopen the main coastal road. On 14 November, the Libyan Airports Authority held a meeting with Turkey’s al-Bayrak Group to discuss plans for the development of a Misrata International Airport. On 15 November, LNA commander Haftar issued a decree appointing Major General Abdussalam al-Hassi as commander of the Benghazi-based LNA Special Forces.

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On 4 November, LNA Commander Haftar reportedly launched an operation in Benghazi to expand joint security cooperation. Also, on 4 November, clashes erupted in Tarhouna. On 5 November, the military spokesman of the GNA, Dara, claimed the presence of Russian Wagner mercenaries in Sirte. The same day, it was reported that Turkish troops would remain in Libya for as long as the GNA wishes. On 6 November, several citizens arriving at Tripoli’s Mitiga airport from Benina Airport in Benghazi were arrested on charges of taking part in the 2019 attack on Tripoli.

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On 2 November, delegations from the GNA and LNA met in Ghadames to conduct the fifth round of talks within the framework of the 5+5 JMC. On 30 October, a spokesperson for the GNA, al-Zaklai, announced that GNA Prime Minister al-Serraj had taken back his decision to resign.

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On 23 October, delegations from the GNA and LNA signed a ceasefire agreement. On the same day, the first commercial passenger flight from Tripoli landed at Benghazi’s Benina airport. On 20 October, GNA Commander of the Sirte-Jufra Operations Room, Beit al-Mal, called upon the head of the GNA, al-Serraj, to remove Libyan Media Foundation chief Bayou from his office. On 21 October, Sabratha armed forces clashed with the al-Shalfouh militia from Ajalat. On 24 October, spokesperson for the GNA Volcano of Rage Operation, Qananou, urged UNSMIL to send monitoring teams to Sirte, Jufra and Brak al-Shati airbase.

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On 14 October, Rada reportedly detained the commander of the Zawiyyan Coastguard. On 15 October, GNA and LNA traded accusations of provoking altercations at the Sirte-Jufra frontline. On 16 October, the first flight from Tripoli’s Mitiga Airport arrived at Benghazi’s Benina Airport after more than a year. On 17 October, the LNA sent reinforcements belonging to the 128 Brigade. On 18 October, 12 unidentified bodies were found in mass graves in Tarhouna. On 19 October, military leaders met in Geneva for dialogues within the 5+5 JMC framework.

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