On 3 July, a Turkish delegation made an unannounced visit to Tripoli to meet with senior GNA officials. On 1 July, France temporarily withdrew its participation from NATO’s Operation Sea Guardian. On 3 July, the speaker of the HoR, Saleh, held a meeting in Moscow with Russian Foreign Minister, Lavrov. On 1 July, a high-level US delegation undertook a meeting with LNA officials to discuss DDR initiatives. Also on 1 July, Saleh, met with Greek Foreign Minister, Dendias, in Tubruq.

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On 23 June, the Counter-Terrorism Unit of the Joint Security Operations Room, in cooperation with the GNA arrested a Tunisian national suspected of being an al-Qaeda member in Tripoli’s Old City. On 29 June, Macron accused Ankara of ‘importing’ jihadists to Libya.

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On 3 June, GNA Prime Minister al-Serraj announced the complete liberation of Tripoli. On 5 June, GNA forces entered Tarhouna and Bani Walid. On 6 June, the GNA Sirte-Jufra Operations Room declared Operation “Paths of Victory” to capture Sirte and Jufra. On 9 June, the NOC proclaimed that LNA affiliated forces had entered the Sharara field and interrupted operations.

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On 7 May, the LNA launched shells within the vicinity of the GNA Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Supreme Court, and the Turkish and Italian Ambassadors’ residencies. On 11 May, the Foreign Ministers of Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece and the UAE issued a joint declaration in which they expressed concern over the current escalation in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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On 18 February, LNA forces shelled Tripoli port. On 18 February, the attack coincided with the UN-mediated 5 + 5 Joint Military Committee discussions resumed in Geneva. On 18 February, the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, meeting with the US ambassador to Libya, Richard Norland, in Rajma.

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On 19 December, the GNA approved its security MoU with Turkey. On 26 December, the GNA formally requested Turkish ground, naval and aerial support for its forces fighting against Haftar’s LNA in Tripoli and Erdogan said the Turkish parliament would vote on the issue in January. On 23 December, the Municipality of Misrata issued a statement refuting that it had had any communication with Haftar’s forces after Haftar issued an ultimatum on 19 December calling for Misrata to withdraw its forces from Tripoli.

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On 12 December, the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, announced a new ‘Zero Hour’. GNA head Fayez al-Serraj urged his forces to stand against the LNA and called upon countries that back Haftar to leave the people of Libya alone. On 15 December, representatives of Misrata met and announced a general state of mobilisation for Misratan forces.

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On 14 November, the US State Department released a statement directly addressing the LNA and calling on it to “end its offensive on Tripoli.” On 13 November, representatives of the US State Department started a US-Libya Security Dialogue in Washington, DC with the GNA.

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On 3 November, the GNA’s Volcano of Rage Operation said that the LNA had conducted four airstrikes against Tripoli’s Mitiga airport. On 1 November, the LNA said it had launched airstrikes against a military camp near Zelten, west of Tripoli. On the same day, the GNA’s PC issued a statement condemning LNA airstrikes against the Ministry of Interior headquarters.

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On 26 October, US Embassy officials travelled to Benina to meet with notable eastern figures and discuss efforts to end the fighting around Tripoli and seek justice for US victims of the 11 September 2012 attack in Benghazi. On 27 October, the German foreign minister and UN Envoy discussed the Berlin conference in Tripoli. Russia hosted its first Africa summit which was attended by Serraj and eastern government representatives.

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On 16 October, undated photos circulated on social media suggesting Zeyad Belaam, the founder of the Benghazi Defence Brigades (BDB) was fighting alongside anti-LNA coalition forces on the frontlines of Tripoli.

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On 14 October, suspected LNA aerial attacks struck a house in the al-Furnaj neighbourhood of Tripoli, killing three children and their mother, and injuring another child. On 13 October, a TRB commander accused the MoF and CBL of obstructing a deal for additional support from Turkey.

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During the last week, the Libyan National Army (LNA) has increased its aerial attacks on anti-LNA forces in southern Tripoli, with a specific focus on reducing their aerial and drone assets. Heavy fighting has been reported within and in proximity to the Tripoli International Airport (TIA), Aziziyya, al-Asebea, and Khallat al-Furjan.

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