On 5 May, the LNA released an audiotape in which its leader, Khalifa Haftar, advises his forces to push hard and to “teach the enemy a greater and bigger lesson than previous ones.” On 2 May, the GNA spokesman and the chairman of the Presidential Council’s Emergency Committee held a press conference.

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On 24 April, UN Envoy to Libya Ghassan Salame met with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte in Rome. Salame called for Italy and all UN member states to push for a ceasefire and the return to dialogue, stressing that dialogue “is the only possible way to avoid the catastrophe.” He added that the National Conference, although impossible at present, remains essential in the long run. On 29 April, during a visit to Paris, Salame openly criticised Haftar. He is quoted as saying: “He is no Abraham Lincoln, he is no big democrat … Seeing him act, we can be worried about his methods because where he is governing, he doesn’t govern softly, but with an iron fist.”

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On 15 April, US President Donald Trump had a phone conversation with Libyan National Army (LNA) Khalifa Haftar. On 22 April, GNA Prime Minister Fayez al-Serraj played down the conversation between Haftar and Trump, saying that while he hadn’t spoken to Trump his engagement with the US administration suggested they opposed his military actions.

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On 29 March, Haftar states that within two weeks there will be a unified government in Libya. On 31 March, the LNA’s 155 Battalion, declared to the LNA Central Command its readiness for mobilising. On 30 March, elections for nine of the 69 municipals councils in southern and western Libya took place.

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On 27 February, Khalifa Haftar and Fayez al-Serraj met in Abu Dhabi under the auspice of the UN envoy to Libya where both parties agreed to end the transitional phase of government. The dialogue was openly supported by the international community and received a mixed response in Libya.

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On 5 December, the head of the LNA, Khalifa Haftar, arrived in Rome for an unannounced two-day visit. On 4 December, Government of National Accord (GNA) Prime Minister, Fayez al-Serraj, traveled to Brussels to attend a meeting with NATO officials.

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On 10 July, Khalifa Haftar ordered all LNA-affiliated Petroleum Facilities Guards to allow oil ports under their control to resume exports under the authority of the Tripoli-based NOC and its subsidiaries. On 11 July, the NOC lifted force majeure on all of the Oil Crescent ports and Tobruq’s Hariga port.

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On 28 June, commander of the Libyan National Army (LNA) Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar announced the ‘liberation’ of the city of Derna. Earlier that day the LNA had stated that they had complete control of the city and that Brigadier General Salem al-Rifadi was appointed the head of the Joint Security Operations Room for the city.

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On 25 June, the LNA spokesperson Ahmed al-Mismari stated that Khalifa Haftar had ordered that the all ports ‘liberated’ from Ibrahim Jadhran forces on 21 June by the LNA were to be handed over to the Benghazi-based National Oil Corporation, under the auspices of the Bayda-based parallel (interim) government led by Abdullah al-Thinni.

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On 29 May, French President Emmanuel Macron hosted a Libya summit where Government of National Accord (GNA) Prime Minister Fayez al-Serraj, President of the House of Representatives (HoR) Agilah Saleh, President of the High Council of State (HCS) Khaled Mishri, and General Commander of the Libyan National Army (LNA) Khalifa Haftar agreed to hold ‘credible, peaceful’ parliamentary and presidential elections on 10 December 2018, and to respect the results of the election.

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On 26 April, Libyan National Army (LNA) commander Khalifa Haftar landed at Benghazi. On 27 April, the Awlad Suliman Tribal Council in Sebha issued a statement welcoming Haftar’s return and declaring loyalty and readiness to support him. On 25 April, a delegation from the city of Zintan paid a return visit to Misrata, where delegates from both cities signed a reconciliation agreement.

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On 10 April, unconfirmed reports began circulating that that Libyan National Army (LNA) commander Khalifa Haftar, after losing consciousness in Benghazi, was rushed to Amman in Jordan then transferred to the Val-de-Grace hospital in Paris, France. On 11 April, the HoR President Agilah Saleh accepted the invitation of the new head of the Tripoli-based High State Council, Khaled Mishri, to meet for reconciliation talks.

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On 1 April, in a media statement, Libyan National Army (LNA) leader Khalifa Haftar warned that the time given to the Derna Mujahedeen Shura Council (DMSC) – who occupies and controls the city of Derna – to disarm and lay down their weapons has expired and suggests that major clashes in Derna could start at any time.

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There has been growing international criticism of Libyan National Army general commander Khalifa Haftar following his speech on 17 December where he declared the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA) and its institutions expired. On 21 December, French foreign minister Jean-Yves Le Drian visited Haftar and had ‘frank discussions’ for an hour, after which he told press that he told Haftar ‘there …

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The 17 December ‘expiry’ date of the LPA was marked by an official television announcement from Khalifa Haftar declaring the LPA and its institutions expired. Haftar also endorsed ‘elections’ as the only legitimate expression of the Libyan people’s will. The same day, Misrata’s municipal mayor Mohammed Eshtewi was abducted and killed shortly after landing in the city on a flight from Turkey.

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