Last week, GNA PM Fayez al-Serraj signed an MoU with Italy agreeing to reduce the number of migrants leaving Libya in return for support for the Libyan coast guard and funding for detention centers in Libya. The EU approved the deal and will contribute its own funding to anti-smuggling support measures.

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On 30 January, Turkey became the second country to reopen its embassy in Tripoli saying it would “support the territorial integrity and national unity of brotherly Libya”, while Egypt continues its diplomatic efforts to bring rival Libyan factions together in negotiations.

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On 19 January, American B-2 stealth bombers destroyed two ISIS camps approximately 44 km south-west of Sirte, dropping more than 100 precision-guided bombs on the targets. On 21 January, a VBIED exploded near the Italian embassy in Tripoli.

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On 11 January, Khalifa Haftar, the commander of the Libyan National Army (LNA), was formally received aboard the Admiral Kuznetsov, Russia’s only aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean. On 14 January, Haftar summoned the senior LNA commanders from the east, west and south of Libya for a high-level meeting with HoR President.

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On 9 January, the Italian Foreign Ministry announced it was sending its ambassador back to Libya. It is the first Western diplomatic mission to reopen in the country.  The statement said the ambassador would present his credentials to the GNA on 10 January and would start work in Tripoli immediately.

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Internationally, diplomacy efforts are gaining pace with Russia demanding a formal political role for Marshall Haftar, Algeria trying to broker dialogue between Haftar and the Islamists, and Egypt trying to pursue demands for amending the LPA and reforming the GNA.

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Last week, US AFRICOM concluded Operation Odyssey Lightning in Sirte while support is being given to the Stabilisation Facility for Libya. On 23 December, an internal Libya flight was hijacked and flown to Malta, where the hijackers were apprehended.

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Last week, the UN held a conference in Tunis to discuss how the international community can support the GNA’s fledgling presidential guard. A number of high-level diplomatic events in Egypt, Russia and Algeria also took place that may indicate a shift towards a more Haftar-inclusive approach to the Libyan peace process at an international level.  

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On 6 December, UN Envoy to Libya Martin Kobler told the UN Security Council (UNSC) that although the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA) was ‘the only solution’ to the Libyan problem, its terms were ‘not set in stone’. This raises the possibility that the terms of the LPA may be renegotiated. Any reworking of the LPA will presumably favour General Khalifa …

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UN envoy to Libya continues his efforts to get the LPA accepted by the HoR before the 17 December deadline, however says that certain points such as controversial article 8, which would prevent Haftar from controlling the LNA, may be re-negotiated

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The international community continues to show its support for the GNA as the ‘only’ solution to the Libyan political impasse while Haftar is strengthening his relationship with Russia and asking for arms to help the LNA defeat ISIS

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Rome meeting on Libya’s economic situation ended in an agreement to make funds available for the PC, while UN envoy holds talks with anti-GNA HoR members in Egypt, hinting at rapprochement between UNSMIL and HoR.

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A meeting held in Malta to discuss the political impasse in the LPA fizzled out without any significant results. The anti-GNA factions are waiting for the LPA to expire in December, hopeful that following Trump’s victory, a potential new international political order will favour their political ambitions.

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There has been confusion this week over whether American airstrikes against ISIS positions in Sirte have ended or have just been paused temporarily, while the outcomes of the economic meeting in London are still unclear.

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Western powers hosted a controversial meeting in London on 31 October between Libyan officials to discuss Libya’s deteriorating economic situation, during which they reiterated their support for the GNA and Libyan Political Agreement.

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Last week, UN and European diplomats visited PM Fayez Serraj and head of the High Council of State, Abdulrahman Swehli, to discuss the recent ‘coup’ attempt in Tripoli and to reaffirm their support for the Libyan Political Agreement and the GNA. The US have ramped up their airstrikes in Sirte and are in the process of switching the aircrafts involved in this campaign.

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2014
Jun June 27th: Tarek Mitri, head of UNSMIL, praised the well-run HoR election
Jul
Aug Aug 25th: Libya's neighbours hold Cairo conference
Sep Sept 29th: UN sponsored Ghademes talks
Oct
Nov Nov 3rd: ISIS established in Derna and Thinni refuses to negotiate with 'terrorists' Nov 17th: Tweets sent by ISIS claimed responsibility for bombings at embassies in Tripoli Nov 30th: UN's blacklist of Ansar Sharia and Ghadames dialogue meeting
Dec
2015
Jan Jan 19th: UN talks open in Geneva
Feb
Mar Mar 29th: UN extends arms embargo
Apr
May
Jun June 15th: U.S. airstrike targets Belmokhtar
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov Nov 16th: First U.S. airstrike in Derna kills top ISIS leader
Dec
2016
Jan Jan 27th: US Joint Chiefs advocate intervention in Sirte
Feb Feb 9th: Italians mentioned by US as lead on Sirte Intervention
Mar Mar 22nd: Italians prepared to provide 5000 troops for Libya
Apr Apr 14th: Italian FM visits GNA in Tripoli, first visit by European diplomat since 2014
May May 16th: Western powers agree to supply GNA with weapons and training to fight ISIS May 30th: British Special Forces help destroy ISIS suicide vehicles in Sirte
Jun June 20th: Operation Sophia gets approval to inspect vessels off Libyan coast
Jul July 25th: 3 French Special Forces soldiers killed in downing of LNA helicopter in Benghazi
Aug Aug 1st: US launches campaign of airstrikes against ISIS in Sirte Aug 29th: West reiterates GNA sole legitimate power after HoR votes against it
Sep Sept 20th: International community welcomes resumption of oil exports
Oct Oct 11th: European countries welcome Haftar's envoys Oct 25th: US ramps up airstrikes in Sirte
Nov Nov 27th: Haftar visits Moscow to request support and arms
Dec Dec 19th: US AFRICOM announced the conclusion of Operation Odyssey Lightening
2017
Jan Jan 10th: Italian ambassador returns to Libya Jan 19th: US jets destroy 2 ISIS camps south of Sirte using precision-guided bombs
Feb Feb 7th: Serraj signs MoU on migration with Italy Feb 14th: US vetoes appointment of former Palestinian PM Salam Fayyad as new UN Libya Envoy
Mar Mar 21th: The League of Arab States, the African Union, the EU and the UN establish Libya quartet
Apr Apr 19th: US Treasury sanctions Libyan financial facilitators of ISIS
May May 2nd: Serraj briefly meets Trump May 30th: Egypt launches airstrikes in Derna and Jufra in retaliation for ISIS attack in Egypt
Jun
Jul
Aug