On 25 June, Haftar received a UAE Armed Forces delegation led by Deputy Chief of Staff Major General al-Mazrouei just one month after Egyptian chief of staff visit. Two prominent Zawiyyan militia members detained by authorities in Saudi Arabia on return from pilgrimage.

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The clashes between the Dabbashi brigade and the more pro-LNA Anti-ISIS Operation Room have continued unabated in Sabratha with use of heavy artillery, despite attempts by different actors to establish a ceasefire. So far, 26 people have been killed, 170 wounded and thousands displaced from the city centre. In Tripoli, 2 Nawasi fighters were killed by Tajouri’s forces, sparking tensions.

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Protests led by Basit Igtet in Marytrs square drew crowds but not as many as expected and the protest appeared to fizzle out without incident. Clashes in Sabratha between Dabbashi and Anti-ISIS force have escalated with civilians killed and other forces attempting to mobilize from Zawiyya and Watiya airbase to support their allies.

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On 10 September, the commander of the LNA’s Sirte Operation Room declared that the entire coastal strip from Sidra to about 50km east of Sirte. On 8 September, the LNA reportedly defused a bomb attached to the main gas pipeline south of Ajdabiya. BM forces are positioned at the 30km checkpoint east of Sirte, and it is reported that BM arrested two people in a raid last week, fueling tensions with the local population.

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On 30 August, Serraj appointed a Chief of Staff of the Libyan Army under the GNA, a move rejected by the LNA. On 1 September, a Zawiyya militia attacked a demonstration in commemoration of Gaddafi’s revolution, organised by local rivals affiliated with the LNA.

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The BDB announced it will dissolve itself and that some members will enlist in the formation of a legitimate Libyan army. The Libyan National Army (LNA) fully retook the Souq al-Hout area and the main central square in Benghazi. The Grand Mufti, calls for hard-liner Islamist factions and revolutionaries to reassemble and save a ‘dying’ revolution.

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On 26 May, pro-GNA Tripoli militias evicted rival anti-GNA militias from the capital, taking over key sites including Hadba prison. 52 people were killed in the fighting. The LNA recognised the pro-GNA militias’ efforts against ‘Islamist terrorists’.

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On 9 February, forces who oppose the UN-backed GNA announced the formation of the ‘Libyan National Guard’ (LNG) in Tripoli. A number of militias from western Libya announced they had joined the LNG forces and clashes broke out with rival factions in capital.

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Local sources in Jufra report a new mobilization by GNA/Islamist affiliated groups who reportedly plan to attack Ras Lanuf port in the coming weeks. Rivalries between militias of various factions in Tripoli are escalating, with various rival armed groups implicated in clashes, kidnappings and armed assault.

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Last week, clashes resumed between the Libyan National Army (LNA) commanded by Haftar and the coalition of jihadis in Benghazi as the LNA attempted to take full control of the Abu Saneeb area of Ganfuda. A number of LNA fighters and jihadi fighters were killed during the fighting.

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On 12 January, militias allied to Khalifa al-Ghwell, leader of a rival government in Tripoli, seized several ministerial buildings in Tripoli, while the whole of western and southern Libya continues to suffer chronic power outages, provoking tensions and anti-GNA sentiment

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Rapprochement efforts between the LNA and Misratan factions which side step the UN-process appear to be bearing fruit, with the pro-Haftar HoR President Agilah Saleh holding a flurry of meetings with rival politicians and militias this week. In western Libya, clashes have broken out in Zawiyya while in Tripoli, inter-militia tensions, crime and lawlessness are growing.

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At the moment of partial victory in Sirte, various pillars that should make up the anti-ISIS coalition are feuding with each other. The House of Representatives (HoR) has rejected the Government of National Accord, while the Libyan National Army (LNA) and Petroleum Facilities Guard (PFG) are facing increasing tension over Zuetina in the oil crescent, and various interests are preventing oil production in order to seek their own demands.

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On 22 August, the HoR managed to hold its first session since February 2016 with the required legal quorum. Of the 101 members in attendance, 61 voted no-confidence on the current GNA cabinet, but gave the Presidential Council a final opportunity to submit an amended cabinet for a possible future endorsement vote. This latest development is quite a blow to the internationally recognized GNA, as certain ministers have already assumed their mandates, but may have to now be replaced… In Western Libya, the conflict map is becoming slightly more complicated. The main tension inside the capital is between pro-GNA militias and anti-GNA Islamist/Misratan affiliated factions, signaling a very likely conflict between these militias after the victory in Sirte is secured.

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On 22 July, large demonstrations took place in Tripoli, Misrata, Zawiyya, Zuwara and others denouncing the discovery of French fighters acting in coordination with Khalifa Haftar as evidence of a French invasion, and breaching of the internationally recognized political agreement. Anti-Government of National Accord (GNA) forces are using the event to re-consolidate political forces that had fragmented after the GNA replaced the former Islamist-aligned General National Congress (GNC) in Tripoli on 30 March 2016… The credibility of the LNA took another severe hit after 14 bodies were discovered on 21 July in a rubbish dump in Benghazi, an area supposedly ‘liberated’ from ISIS in March 2016.

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