ISIS forces are still entrenched within a roughly one square kilometre enclave in north-east Sirte and continue to inflict casualties on their Misratan opponents through their use of snipers and explosive devices. This week, the Misratan forces made further gains against the remaining ISIS fighters, with support from US air strikes.

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The recent takeover of the oil ports by Field Marshall Khalifa Haftar and the Libyan National Army (LNA), who are aligned with the Tobruq-based House of Representatives (HoR), has significantly shifted the balance of political and military power away from PM Fayez Serraj and his Presidential Council, and towards Haftar. As a result, there is growing international pressure to find a way to bring Haftar within the Libyan Political Agreement, in order to reflect the realities on the ground.

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Fighting continues between LNA forces and jihadists in Benghazi, with the LNA also extending raids into nearby towns. In Tripoli, tensions are growing between pro-GNA militias and hardline Islamists, with one of the Mufti’s close associates being kidnapped last week.

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On 7 October, the Presidential Council met with all of its members in Tunis, but little came of the meeting. Although Haftar is consolidating his control over Eastern Libya, and is using this as leverage to gain greater power within negotiations, he is struggling to exert his control over western and southern Libya.

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